The Effects of Hole Cleaning on Post-Installed Anchor Systems in - [PDF Document] (2024)

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The Effects of Hole Cleaning on Post-Installed Anchor

Systems in Concrete

A Major Qualifying Project proposal to be submitted to the faculty of Worcester Polytechnic

Institute in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science.

Submitted by:

Keith Coleman

Cory Figliolini

Submitted to:

Project Advisor:

Prof. Tahar El-Korchi

Project Liaison:

David Amara

April 28, 2008

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Table of Contents

Abstract _____________________________________________________________________ 1

Acknowledgements ____________________________________________________________ 2

1 Introduction _____________________________________________________________ 3

2 Background _____________________________________________________________ 4

2.1 Concrete Base Material ______________________________________________________ 4

2.2 Loadings __________________________________________________________________ 4 2.2.1 Static Loads _____________________________________________________________________ 4 2.2.2 Dynamic Loads ___________________________________________________________________ 4

2.3 Types of Anchoring Systems __________________________________________________ 5 2.3.1 Cast-in-Place _____________________________________________________________________ 5 2.3.2 Post-Installed ____________________________________________________________________ 6

2.4 Working Principles _________________________________________________________ 6 2.4.1 Bonding ________________________________________________________________________ 6 2.4.2 Friction _________________________________________________________________________ 7 2.4.3 Keying _________________________________________________________________________ 7

2.5 Adhesive Systems ___________________________________________________________ 7 2.5.1 HILTI Adhesives _________________________________________________________________ 8 2.5.2 Threaded Rods ___________________________________________________________________ 9 2.5.3 Installation ______________________________________________________________________ 9

2.6 Mechanical Systems ________________________________________________________ 10 2.6.1 HILTI Systems __________________________________________________________________ 11 2.6.2 Installation _____________________________________________________________________ 11

2.7 Building Codes and Standards _______________________________________________ 12

3 Methodology ____________________________________________________________ 13

3.1 Experimental Testing Design ________________________________________________ 13

3.2 Preliminary Testing ________________________________________________________ 13

3.3 Preliminary Testing Observations ____________________________________________ 17

3.4 Revised Testing Procedure __________________________________________________ 18

3.5 Revised Testing Observations ________________________________________________ 18

3.6 Additional Test Specifications _______________________________________________ 20

3.7 Materials Tests ____________________________________________________________ 22 3.7.1 Concrete Direct Compressive Strength ________________________________________________ 22 3.7.2 Concrete Indirect Tensile Strength ___________________________________________________ 22 3.7.3 Steel Anchor Tension Test _________________________________________________________ 23

3.8 Anchor Tests _____________________________________________________________ 23 3.8.1 HIT-RE 500, Standard Diameter, Cleaned _____________________________________________ 24 3.8.2 HIT-RE 500, Standard Diameter, Un-Cleaned __________________________________________ 24 3.8.3 HIT-RE 500, Oversized Diameter, Cleaned ____________________________________________ 24 3.8.4 HY 150, Standard Diameter, Cleaned, Dry ____________________________________________ 24 3.8.5 HY 150, Standard Diameter, Cleaned, Wet ____________________________________________ 25 3.8.6 HY 150, Oversized Diameter, Cleaned, Wet ___________________________________________ 25

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3.9 Design Project ____________________________________________________________ 25

4 Results_________________________________________________________________ 27

4.1 Material Test Results_______________________________________________________ 28 4.1.1 Concrete Direct Compressive Test ___________________________________________________ 29 4.1.2 Concrete Indirect Tensile Test ______________________________________________________ 29 4.1.3 Steel Anchor Tension Test _________________________________________________________ 30

4.2 Anchor Test Results________________________________________________________ 30 4.2.1 HIT-RE 500, Standard Diameter, Cleaned _____________________________________________ 30 4.2.2 HIT-RE 500, Standard Diameter, Un-Cleaned __________________________________________ 31 4.2.3 HIT-RE 500, Oversized Diameter, Cleaned ____________________________________________ 32 4.2.4 HY 150 Max, Standard Diameter, Cleaned, Dry ________________________________________ 33 4.2.5 HY 150 Max, Standard Diameter, Cleaned, Wet ________________________________________ 33 4.2.6 HY 150 Max, Oversized Diameter, Cleaned, Wet _______________________________________ 34

4.3 Design Problem ___________________________________________________________ 35 4.3.1 HIT RE 500 Design ______________________________________________________________ 35 4.3.2 HIT HY 150 Max Design __________________________________________________________ 36 4.3.3 Load Distribution ________________________________________________________________ 38

5 Conclusions ____________________________________________________________ 39

5.1 Concrete _________________________________________________________________ 40

5.2 Steel Rod _________________________________________________________________ 40

5.3 HIT RE 500 Adhesive ______________________________________________________ 41

5.4 HY 150 MAX Adhesive _____________________________________________________ 45

Appendix A: Definitions ________________________________________________________

Appendix B: Equations _________________________________________________________

Appendix C: References_________________________________________________________

Appendix D: Test Data Sheets ____________________________________________________

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Table of Figures Figure 1: Cast-in-place Anchors ..................................................................................................... 5 Figure 2: Illustration of Bonding Forces ......................................................................................... 6 Figure 3: Illustration of Friction Forces .......................................................................................... 7 Figure 4: Illustration of Keying Forces ........................................................................................... 7 Figure 5: HILTI Cartridge System .................................................................................................. 9

Figure 6: Preliminary Test 1: 3/8” TZ rods. ................................................................................. 14 Figure 7: Failure of TZ anchor Test 1 and gripping fixture ......................................................... 14 Figure 8: Load vs. Deformation behavior for Test 2, 3/8" HIT TZ rod ........................................ 15 Figure 9: Preliminary Test 3: Concrete Edge Failure ................................................................... 15 Figure 10: I-Beam Deformation in Preliminary Testing ............................................................... 16

Figure 11: Threaded Rod Deformation ......................................................................................... 16 Figure 12: Test 3 Load vs. Deformation Curve ............................................................................ 16

Figure 13: Bucket for Forms ......................................................................................................... 17 Figure 14: Sample with Installed Anchor ..................................................................................... 17 Figure 15: Test 4 and 5 Sample .................................................................................................... 18 Figure 16: Test 4 and 5 Set Up. .................................................................................................... 18

Figure 17: Test 4 Failure .............................................................................................................. 18 Figure 18: Test 5 Failure ............................................................................................................... 18 Figure 19: Steel Ring Dimensions ................................................................................................ 18

Figure 20: Proposed Setup ............................................................................................................ 19 Figure 21: Testing setup without steel ring................................................................................... 19

Figure 22: Steel Ring and Sample ................................................................................................ 19 Figure 23: Concrete Cylinder Tested in Compression .................................................................. 22 Figure 24: Reduced Diameter in Grip ........................................................................................... 23

Figure 25: Combined Failure Load ............................................................................................... 27

Figure 26: Combined Bond Stress ................................................................................................ 28 Figure 27: Concrete Failure, HIT RE 500 Cleaned ...................................................................... 30 Figure 28: Ductile Steel Failure in Oversized HIT RE 500 Test .................................................. 32

Figure 29: Concrete Failure, HY 150 Max Cleaned ..................................................................... 33 Figure 30: Concrete Failure, HY 150 Max Cleaned ..................................................................... 33

Figure 31: Design Project Dimensions ......................................................................................... 35 Figure 32: HIT RE 500 Cost Effectiveness .................................................................................. 36 Figure 33: HIT HY 150 Max Cost Effectiveness ......................................................................... 37 Figure 34: Design Problem Anchor Location ............................................................................... 38

Figure 35: Big Dig Panel Collapse, news.thomasnet.com ....................................................... 39 Figure 36: Capped Concrete Test Cylinders ................................................................................. 40 Figure 37: Attached Strain Gauge................................................................................................. 41 Figure 38: HIT-RE 500 Un-cleaned Anchor Pull-Out ................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

Figure 39: Uncleaned HIT RE-500 Pulled Out Anchor................................................................ 42 Figure 40: Cracked HIT RE 500 Adhesive ................................................................................... 44 Figure 41: HIT HY 150 Max, Oversized, Wet Pull Out ............................................................... 47

Figure 42: Split Sample ................................................................................................................ 48

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List of Tables Table 1: HILTI Adhesive Products ................................................................................................. 8 Table 2: HILTI Threaded Rod ........................................................................................................ 9 Table 3: HILTI Mechanical Anchors ............................................................................................ 11 Table 4: Required Epoxy per Anchor ........................................................................................... 20 Table 5: Sample Size and Power Level ........................................................................................ 21

Table 6: Concrete Compression Test Results ............................................................................... 29 Table 7: Concrete Indirect Tension Tests Results ........................................................................ 29 Table 8: Steel Anchor Tension Test Results ................................................................................. 30 Table 9 HIT-RE 500, Standard Diameter, Cleaned Results ......................................................... 31 Table 10 HIT-RE 500, Standard Diameter, Cleaned Statistical Analysis .................................... 31

Table 11 HIT-RE 500, Standard Diameter Un-Cleaned Test Results .......................................... 31 Table 12 HIT-RE 500, Standard Diameter, Un-cleaned Statistical Analysis ............................... 31

Table 13: HIT-RE 500 Oversized Diameter Test Results ............................................................ 32 Table 14: HIT-RE 500 Oversized Diameter Test Statistical Analysis ........................................ 32 Table 15: HY 150 Max, Cleaned, Dry Test Results ..................................................................... 33 Table 16: HY 150 Max, Cleaned, Dry, Statistical Analysis ........................................................ 33

Table 17: HY 150 Max, Cleaned, Wet Test Results ..................................................................... 33 Table 18: HY 150 Max, Cleaned, Wet Statistical Analysis .......................................................... 33 Table 19: HY 150 Max, Oversized, Wet, Test Results ................................................................. 34

Table 20: HY 150 Max, Oversized, Wet, Statistical Analysis ...................................................... 34 Table 21: HIT RE 500 Design Values .......................................................................................... 35

Table 22: HIT RE 500 Panel Costs ............................................................................................... 36 Table 23: HIT HY 150 Max Design Values ................................................................................. 36 Table 24: HIT HY 150 Max Panel Costs ...................................................................................... 36

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Abstract

This project aimed to confirm the relationship between installation technique and anchor

performance according to HILTI specifications. Controlled testing was performed in order to

collect sufficient data to accurately determine a relationship. Testing results were used to predict

anchor performance and impact of installation errors.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge the following people for their support and contributions to

the project:

David Amara

Tahar El-Korchi

Don Pellegrino

Dean Daigneault

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1 Introduction

Post installed anchors are used in construction to facilitate the connection of structural

elements to existing cured concrete. One notable use of post-installed anchors is in the Big Dig,

where concrete panels were suspended from the ceiling as part of the tunnel ventilation system.

A catastrophic failure of the anchors resulted in the release of three ton concrete ceiling panels

into lanes of traffic. The National Transportation Safety Board investigated the incident and

concluded that “…that the probable cause of the July 10, 2006, ceiling collapse…was the use of

an epoxy anchor adhesive with poor creep resistance, that is, an epoxy formulation that was not

capable of sustaining long-term loads. This is cause to examine post-installed anchoring systems

and how the installation process affects the performance of the anchor and potentially public

safety.

HILTI offers many anchoring systems. Although HILTI anchor systems were not used in the

Big Dig their systems will be used to analyze the effect of the installation process and creep

resistance. During the examination of HILTI post installed anchor systems, different types of

anchors were reviewed. The investigation of the installation process will occur through

controlled laboratory testing and observation. HILTI offers five different adhesive systems and

more than half a dozen mechanical systems for specific conditions.

The anchoring systems offered by HILTI were designed to connect objects to concrete after

curing. The adhesive systems provide a permanent anchor while some of the mechanical systems

provide an anchor but can also be removed if only needed for temporary use or use in cracked

concrete. The adhesive systems will be the primary focus in this project.

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2 Background

2.1 Concrete Base Material

Since this project examined the effects of proper drill hole cleaning on post-installed

anchors set in concrete, some properties of concrete were taken into consideration. Although

these characteristics were useful to their application, they also had an effect on how well an

anchor performed.

The sample’s strength can affect anchors by determining how a given anchor system will

fail. For example, a failure in low strength concrete will be more likely to result in a conical

concrete blow out. Similarly, a high strength concrete will have a higher tendency to exhibit

ductile fracture or pull-out. This concept can be utilized to minimize damage and costs in the

event of a failure. Depending on the situation, it may be more beneficial to replace a bolt, rather

than a concrete structure.

2.2 Loadings

Before an effective anchor bolt can be designed, it is crucial to know the magnitude and

type of all loads that it will be expected to withstand. Due to the variety of proprietary and

application specific bolts, the type of loads must be known first in order to achieve the desired

outcome.

2.2.1 Static Loads

Static loads are forces that are constantly being applied to the structure and anchor. The

major source for static loads is the weight of the actual structure and how it is distributed

throughout its connections. These loads are present in virtually every structure and must be

accommodated. The loads are fairly predictable once construction materials, material weight,

and quantities are known.

2.2.2 Dynamic Loads

Determining dynamic loads is more involved than determining static loads. First off,

dynamic loads develop from different sources which include environmental factors and human

interaction. Second, they can be of varying magnitude as well as location. Environmental loads

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can be a result of wind, snow, seismic activity and other forms of weather. These can be

calculated by analyzing historic trends and known extremes.

Once the anticipated loads have been determined and the structural elements designed, it

is time to look at how these loads will be carried to the different anchors and connections. With

regard to anchors, the loads will result in primarily tension and shear forces, which are explained

in more detail below. These forces are crucial in determining anchor design because they are

ultimately what the anchor will need to resist.

2.3 Types of Anchoring Systems

Many types of anchors that have been developed have distinct advantages and

disadvantages. Most anchors can be classified into two main categories: cast-in-place and post-

installed. Anchors are placed in the appropriate category based on the time of installation. Cast-

in-place anchors are installed prior to concrete pouring, so that they are correctly positioned

when the concrete hardens. Post-installed anchors are installed after the concrete has cured.

2.3.1 Cast-in-Place

Cast-in-place anchors refer to anchors that are set in concrete during the initial

construction. They are positioned either before the concrete is poured or before it has fully

hardened. There are several types of cast-in-place anchors which are suitable in various

applications, as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Cast-in-place Anchors

Engineers must know the design specification of the bolt before construction in order to

use cast-in-place anchors. There is the possibility that the anchor can be placed in the wrong

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location during construction, resulting in delayed construction time and loss of money. They also

limit design changes that may be needed.

2.3.2 Post-Installed

There are two main categories of post-installed anchors, mechanical and adhesive. Both

types of anchors are installed into concrete that has already cured. Since the anchors are installed

after the concrete has cured this allows for a more flexible design. More will be explained about

post-installed anchors in the following sections.

2.4 Working Principles

Since mechanical and adhesive anchors transfer load in different ways, the working

principles on post-installed anchors must be examined. Each anchor utilizes a combination of

these principles in a unique way that is designed for a specific use. In order to select an

appropriate anchor it is necessary to understand how the anchor secures itself to the base

material.

2.4.1 Bonding

Bonding is the process by which a threaded rod is placed into a hole which has been

drilled in concrete and secured with a structural adhesive. The adhesive typically consists of a

two-part epoxy, polyester or vinylester system which must be mixed prior to installation. Since

the load is carried through the bonding agent along the length of the rod, the anchor’s capacity is

directly related to the embedment depth. Figure 2 gives a visual representation of the how

bonding between an adhesive and concrete transfers a load. The difference in diameter between

the hole and rod is also important because the adhesive used may have a specific drill hole

diameter relative to the rod diameter where performance is highest.

Figure 2: Illustration of Bonding Forces

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2.4.2 Friction

Expansion anchors use friction between the anchor and concrete transfer load. Friction

occurs when expansion causes the sleeve of a mechanical anchor to expand and press against the

side walls of a drill hole as shown in Figure 3. The resistance created by the frictional force

transfers the load from the anchor to the concrete. The expansion stresses generated by the

anchor corresponds to the frictional force that is created, which dictates the capacity of the

anchor. (Hilti, 2006)

Figure 3: Illustration of Friction Forces

2.4.3 Keying

Keying is the process in which the load is transferred to the concrete by forces in the

same direction of the loading. (Wollmershauser, 2006) Keying occurs when a surface of the

anchor expands so that it is no longer perpendicular to the surface of the concrete. Figure 4

shows how the angled surface transfers the load to the concrete.

Figure 4: Illustration of Keying Forces

2.5 Adhesive Systems

The performance of adhesive anchor systems depends on the two main components, the

type of adhesive and the type of threaded rod, as well as their suitability for any given

application. Different adhesives can be more suitable for a combination of factors including

temperature, embedment depth, gel time, base material, loading, installation condition, and

corrosion resistance. HILTI’s adhesive products and their suitability are discussed in the

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following section. Threaded rod selection can be influenced by expected loading, diameter,

installation conditions, and base material.

2.5.1 HILTI Adhesives

Table 1: HILTI Adhesive Products shows the different HILTI adhesive products along

with an image and description (HILTI, 2006)

Table 1: HILTI Adhesive Products

HVU Capsules A heavy duty, two component adhesive anchor consisting of a self-contained adhesive capsule and either a threaded rod with nut and washer or an internally threaded insert.

HIT HY 150 MAX MAX holding power. MAX performance.

HIT ICE Specifically formulated for cold weather

fastenings, installed when the base material temperatures drop as low as -10°F (-23°C).

HIT HY 20 Adhesive

Fastening through masonry construction. Can be used where the quality of brick and mortar is inconsistent, and where voids are present between wythes of brick walls.

HIT RE 500 Epoxy Anchoring System

A high strength, two part adhesive epoxy with a long working (gel) time. Used in solid based concrete applications.

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2.5.2 Threaded Rods

Table 2: HILTI Threaded Rod shows the different HILTI threaded rods along with an

image and description (HILTI, 2006).

Table 2: HILTI Threaded Rod

HAS Threaded Rod Threaded rods for use with HVU capsules and HIT adhesive anchoring systems.

HIT TZ Rod A time and money saving anchor to be used

with HIT HY 150.

2.5.3 Installation

Once design specifications have been determined, the first step is to drill the hole with an

appropriately sized drill bit and drill. For a lot of systems the next step is to clean the hole to

remove any debris, which may create a barrier between the base material and the adhesive,

decreasing performance. This can be easily done by either using a metal wire brush or blowing

out the debris with a bulb or compressed air. Next, the adhesive must be dispensed into the hole.

This can be done differently depending upon the type of adhesive. Most of HILTI’s adhesive

products are two part adhesives, which means that they are comprised of two separate chemical

agents that must be mixed before installation. Cartridge systems have individual tubes for each

component and when dispensed mix in a special nozzle to exact proportions. The components of

a HILTI cartridge system can be seen in Figure 5.

Figure 5: HILTI Cartridge System

Capsule systems contain the components in separate capsules that break when the

threaded rod is drilled in place. HILTI primarily uses cartridge systems to dispense adhesives

although they also manufacture capsule systems. After the adhesive has been dispensed, the

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threaded rod is inserted into the hole and allowed to rest while the adhesive has time to fully cure

before any loading can be applied.

2.6 Mechanical Systems

The performance of the mechanical systems depends on the strength of the anchor and the

suitability for the given application. Undercut anchors, expansion or sleeve anchors, and screw in

anchors all have different mechanical uses. The condition of concrete will influence the style of

anchor to use. Cracked concrete would lead to the use of undercut anchors while anchors that

screw in are best for quick installation without pre-drilled holes.

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2.6.1 HILTI Systems

Table 3: HILTI Mechanical Anchors shows the various HILTI mechanical anchors along

with an image and description from the HILTI North American Product Guide.

Table 3: HILTI Mechanical Anchors

HDA Undercut 2003 IBC compliant self-undercutting mechanical anchor for heavy duty and safety fastenings into concrete. Combines high load capacity with close edge distances. ICC-ES ESR-1546 supports ACI 318 design.

HSL-3 Expansion 2003 IBC compliant heavy-duty expansion anchor. Designed for high performance in static and dynamic load applications. ICC-ES ESR-1545 supports ACI 318 design.

HSL-I M12 Flush Try the HSL mechanical expansion anchor for

your heavy-duty applications.

HSLG-R Stainless Steel Try the HSL mechanical expansion anchor for your heavy-duty applications.

HILTI Kwik Bolt TZ 2003 IBC compliant high-performing medium-

duty expansion anchor. Especially suited for seismic and cracked concrete applications. ICC-ES ESR-1917 supports ACI 318 design.

Kwik Bolt 3 (KB3) With performance values that meet or exceed the Kwik Bolt II, the new KB3 boasts the best approval rating in its class.

2.6.2 Installation

Once design specifications have been determined, the first step is to drill the hole with an

appropriately sized drill bit and drill. For a lot of systems the next step is to clean the hole to

remove any debris. This can be easily done by either using a bulb or compressed air. After the

hole is properly cleaned insert the anchor. Using a drill undercut or expand the anchor locking it

in place.

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2.7 Building Codes and Standards

There is the need to have standards that engineers must follow in the engineering and

construction industry in order to prevent failures due to poor planning and cutting corners. The

main purpose of establishing building codes is to protect the health, safety, and welfare of those

affected by the project by stating the minimum required level of safety that is necessary. These

codes are typically established by governing bodies on a national and local level. They can vary

between city, region, and country. For this project A.S.T.M standards as well as International

Building Codes (IBC) will be adhered to. To determine the compressive strength and indirect

tensile strength of concrete cylinders we will follow the ASTM C873-04 and C496/C496M-04.

The steel the anchors will be made from will concur with ASTM F568M-04 Class 5.8 steel.

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3 Methodology

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of installation technique of post-

installed adhesive anchors with regards to the effectiveness of the bond. The experiment was

designed so that the only variable is the condition of the drill hole prior to the anchor installation.

This was to be accomplished by keeping most of the other variables constant by using the same

concrete batch, anchors, sample dimensions, as well as curing times.

All project work was completed on the Worcester Polytechnic Campus between August and

May of the 2007-2008 academic school year. The project used buckets to form 11.25 in.

diameter in order to test concrete and anchor strength. A 3/8” diameter anchor utilizing adhesive

bonding was used for testing. The anchors were installed in concrete that had cured for 28 days

or more and tested using the Instron testing machine in the Materials and Structures Lab in

Kaven Hall. Drill hole cleanliness and diameter were taken into consideration for testing

procedure.

Prior to the above testing, smaller scale tests were used to determine the sample size and

predict results. These utilized HIT TZ Rods, HAS-E Rods, and HIT RE 500 Epoxy. Existing

concrete blocks were used for the base material.

3.1 Experimental Testing Design

Before the actual testing was performed, many variables in the testing setup needed to be

identified and isolated. To accomplish this, a total of five preliminary tests were performed.

This allowed us to create an accurate, as well as repeatable test procedure by determining how

the various materials would respond to testing.

3.2 Preliminary Testing

The first three preliminary tests were performed using HILTI HIT RE 500 Epoxy and

3/8” HIT TZ rods and 5/8” HAS-E rods. These tests were intended to provide an understanding

of the anchor behavior, rod and adhesive properties as well as securing the test sample in the

testing machine. Two 3/8” rods and one 5/8” rod were installed into a concrete block measuring

2 ft X 2 ft X 1.5 ft, which had cured for over one year. The block was then secured into the

Instron Testing Machine using an aluminum I-beam and threaded rod as shown in Figure 6. A

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gripping fixture that consisted of a steel block that had been tapped with the appropriate diameter

and thread was used to grip the anchors. The anchor failed at a loading of approximately 8,500

pounds, which is shown in Figure 7.

Figure 6: Preliminary Test 1: 3/8” TZ rods.

Figure 7: Failure of TZ anchor Test 1 and gripping fixture

Test 2: 3/8 “ TZ rod was tested and failed due to ductile steel failure at a maximum

loading of 8,739.50 pounds. Figure 8 shows the Load vs. Deformation response for Test 2 It is

important to note that the deformation values come from a variety of sources, including the steel

anchor rod, concrete, the reaction I-beam deflection, as well as slippage.

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1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

10000

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35

Deformation (in)

Load

(lb

s)

Figure 8: Load vs. Deformation behavior for Test 2, 3/8" HIT TZ rod

Test 3: The 5/8” HAS-E rod was tested in tension. A concrete edge failure

occurred at a loading of 22,366 pounds. Due to the size of the block, the required edge

distance was not adequate. As shown if Figure 9, several fracture planes were created,

ultimately exposing the anchor and epoxy.

Figure 9: Preliminary Test 3: Concrete Edge Failure

During the test, the I-beam and the threaded rod were deformed as a result of the

high loading. This makes it difficult to calculate an accurate deformation or strain in the

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rod. Figure 10 and Figure 11 show the extent of the deformation in the threaded rod and

I-beam.

Figure 10: I-Beam Deformation in Preliminary

Testing

Figure 11: Threaded Rod Deformation

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

Deformation (in)

Load

(lb

s)

Figure 12: Test 3 Load vs. Deformation Curve

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3.3 Preliminary Testing Observations

Through the preliminary testing, it was made evident that changes must be made to the

testing set up. These changes allowed for a consistent test that could be repeated. The primary

concern that arose from this round of testing was the required loading that was needed to cause

failure. This was achieved by a combination of changes. By using a 3/8” rod, the load was

drastically reduced. Since the maximum loading was reduced, there were lower stresses exerted

on the I-beam during tests. To minimize interference that resulted from the supports, two 1” by

3” steel bars were used to secure the sample. Four threaded rods were also used. This limited

any deformation and settling resulting from applied loads.

The size and shape of the concrete base sample had to be adjusted for future tests. Plastic

buckets, as shown in Figure 13, were used as forms for the samples. These were chosen for

convenience as well as to minimize the amount of concrete used per sample. The samples were

cylinders with approximate dimensions of 11” diameter by 10” high, as shown in Figure 14.

Test cylinders measuring 6” diameter by 12” length samples were used to test for compressive

strength and indirect tensile strength of the concrete according to ASTM standards C873-04 and

C 496/C 496M-04.

Figure 13: Bucket for Forms

Figure 14: Sample with Installed Anchor

We used HIT RE 500 and HY 150 Epoxy and 3/8” HAS-E Rod. The HAS-E rod was

chosen because it required a smaller edge distance.

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3.4 Revised Testing Procedure

Two more tests were performed after problems in the first set of tests were

addressed. Tests four and five consisted of 3/8” HIT-TZ rods that were installed into

cylindrical samples using HIT-RE 500 Epoxy, as shown in Figure 15. The samples were

loaded into the Instron testing machine using the two steel bars and threaded rods, as

shown in Figure 16. The samples were formed from concrete with an unknown max

compressive strength.

Figure 15: Test 4 and 5 Sample

Figure 16: Test 4 and 5 Set Up.

Test 4 failed at a loading of 7,840 pounds, concrete failure occurred in a spider

web pattern originating from the anchor. Test 5 failed at a loading of 7,962 pounds,

concrete failure also occurred, as shown in Figure 17 and Figure 18. A plane was formed

along the diameter of the cylinder. The concrete failure can be partially explained by the

HIT-TZ rods. The geometry of the rod creates a horizontal compressive force when

tension is applied. This force created internal tensile force within the sample and

contributed to its failure.

Figure 17: Test 4 Failure

Figure 18: Test 5 Failure

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3.5 Revised Testing Observations

According to the HILTI manual, the ultimate steel strength in a 3/8” TZ rod is 7,210

pounds. The tests show that the ultimate strength is between 8,500 pounds and 8,740 pounds.

This additional strength could be contributed to a built-in safety factor. The ultimate tensile

strength in a 5/8” HAS Super is 28,760 pounds. Since the edge distance was not met, the ultimate

strength was multiplied by a load adjustment factor of .76, which was determined by the

embedment depth and provided edge distance. This gives an adjusted maximum tensile strength

of 22,433 pounds, which is close to the value determined by test 3; 22,366 pounds. Through

these tests, we learned that the sample needed to be securely fastened in order to gain accurate

results.

The minimum edge distance must also be provided in order to see how the anchor and

epoxy reacts. Smaller diameter anchors were beneficial to use due to their lower load capacities

and smaller edge distances. They allowed less concrete to be used per sample. Most

importantly, these tests showed that our test setup needed to be improved before our next round

of testing.

In order to provide adequate edge distance, a steel plate with a 10.5” diameter hole cut

out of the middle, as shown in Figure 19 was used.

Figure 19: Steel Ring Dimensions

The inner radius of the ring was equal to the edge distance of the selected anchor. Figure

20 and Figure 21 show the experimental setup, which is explained below. The ring was placed on

top of the sample and the steel bars were placed on top of the ring. The threaded rods were

secured to the base of the machine using T-slot connections and bolted through the steel bars,

where they were be anchored.

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Figure 20: Proposed Setup

Figure 21: Testing setup without steel ring

This set up allowed the sample to be secured to the base while not interfering with the

required edge distance, as shown in Figure 22. The steel ring overlapped the outside edge of the

sample. There is also 3/16” between the required edge distance and the inside of the steel ring.

Figure 22: Steel Ring and Sample

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Concrete was ordered from a local ready-mix facility, to allow for consistent mix and a

large pour. The target compressive strength was 4,000 psi. When the concrete was delivered,

we performed a slump test, air content test as well as calculated the specific gravity of the mixed

concrete. The mix design for the batch was requested so the properties of the concrete could be

calculated and compared to test results.

3.6 Additional Test Specifications

The holes were drilled to the specified depth using the appropriate size drill bit. The drill

holes were divided into four different conditions before the epoxy was applied. The different

conditions were:

1. Cleaned: the drill hole will be blown out with compressed air. This will be the control

condition, which should be consistent with published values.

2. Uncleaned; the drill hole will not be cleaned. No additional debris or liquid will be

introduced into the drill hole. Only material in the drill hole as a result of drilling will

be present.

3. Oversized diameter: anchors will be installed into drill holes that are double the rod

diameter.

4. Wet: the drill hole will be completely filled with Worcester City tap water.

The amount epoxy in each hole and curing time were held constant according to

installation instruction in the HILTI manual. Table 4: Required Epoxy per Anchor shows the

design volume of epoxy required for each test and the total number of anchors.

Table 4: Required Epoxy per Anchor

Variable Number of Anchors Volume of Epoxy (in^3)

Cleaned 10 3.5

Uncleaned 10 3.5

Concrete Dust 10 3.5

Wet 10 3.5

Total 40 14

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The epoxy was then applied and the anchor inserted. The epoxy was allowed to cure and

harden according to the manufacturer’s specifications. The sample was loaded in the Instron

Testing Machine until failure.

Sample size was determined using the “Java applets for power and sample size” found on

http://www.stat.uiowa.edu/~rlenth/Power/ and an equation that determines sample size using

power level. We calculated our sample of size of n=10 per condition. A larger sample size will

be impractical for us to test with our current resources. (Note that a sample size refers to “n” tests

per condition).

Table 5: Sample Size and Power Level

Sample Size, n 1-B (Power)

5 0.5025

6 0.5992

10 0.8484

11 0.8837

16 0.9719

36+ 1.00

Using statistical methods and considering the limitations of the project we have

determined that 10 samples per variable was reasonable. We anticipate the anchors will fail and

some valuable data will be recorded for clean holes. Contaminating the hole with dust or water is

expected to decrease the capabilities of the epoxy and we expect the epoxy to fail in the other

tests. The anchors being requested are ISO 898 Class 5.8 which is equivalent to ASTM F568M-

04 Class 5.8. Under these conditions the Grade 36 steel is rated to have a tensile strength

between 58ksi and 80ksi and this is consistent with our preliminary tests and observations.

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3.7 Materials Tests

In order for the performance on the anchors to be measured and analyzed, the properties of

the other materials involve must be determined. Without knowing how the other materials

would behave during testing, it was nearly impossible to single out the anchor’s behavior. The

following tests were performed to accomplish this.

3.7.1 Concrete Direct Compressive Strength

First the ends of the cylindrical samples were capped with sulfur in the following method

in order to limit slipping in the machine. Molten sulfur was poured into an oiled pan and the

sample was placed in the pan. After the sulfur has hardened, the excess was removed and the

process was repeated for the other end.

The sample was then placed in the Tinius Olsen testing machine where it was loaded

steadily until failure as shown in Figure 23.

Figure 23: Concrete Cylinder Tested in Compression

The maximum loading was recorded and used with the sample’s diameter to determine

the maximum compressive strength.

A strain gauge was attached to the sample and used to calculate the Modulus of Elasticity

for the concrete

This was repeated for each cylinder that was tested

3.7.2 Concrete Indirect Tensile Strength

The cylindrical sample was placed on its side in the Tinius Olsen testing machine. The

sample was loaded until failure and the results were used to calculate the tensile strength of the

concrete.

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3.7.3 Steel Anchor Tension Test

Anchors were tested in the Tinius-Olsen testing machine under direct tensile loading.

Two steel rods were tapped to the appropriate diameter and thread size and used to grip the

anchors in the machine. Approximately 2-3 inches of the anchors threads were removed in a

lathe to all allow a strain gauge to be attached to the rod, as shown in Figure 24.

Figure 24: Reduced Diameter in Grip

The diameter of each anchor was measured individually and entered into the testing

program. Using an attached stain gauge, the Modulus of Elasticity was determined and the rod

was loaded until failure. Stress was also determined by the testing program.

3.8 Anchor Tests

According to the experimental design, tests were performed using 3/8” HAS-E rods on the

various combinations of epoxies, and drill hole conditions, and drill hole diameter. A total of six

conditions were tested and are described in the following sections. One anchor was installed in

each of the samples. Holes were drilled using a rotary hammer drill and concrete drill bits

All tests will be performed using the Instron testing machine and the methods described in

the experiment design. Loads were applied to the anchor at a rate of 0.5” per minute. Failure

was marked by an 80% reduction in load.

The stress in each rod will be calculated using the actual cross sectional area of the rod and

dividing the load by it. Also the bond to concrete strength of the epoxy was calculated using the

surface area inside the hole. For simplicity the bottom of the hole was ignored for the HIT HY

150 MAX tests because no bond strength was listed.

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3.8.1 HIT-RE 500, Standard Diameter, Cleaned

Holes were drilled with a 7/16” drill bit in one pass. Prior to installation, concrete dust

was removed using compressed air. A wire brush was used to remove additional debris and was

blown with compressed air again. Enough adhesive to fill the drill hole was dispensed into the

drill hole using a manual dispenser. A 3/8” HAS-E rod was inserted into the hole in a twisting

motion. The adhesive was allowed to set and cure for a minimum of 24 hours. This set of tests

served as the control group. These results were used to gauge the following test results for the

other HIT-RE 500 tests.

3.8.2 HIT-RE 500, Standard Diameter, Un-Cleaned

Holes were drilled with a 7/16” drill bit in one pass. Compressed air and a wire brush

were not used to remove debris. Whatever concrete dust that was left after the drill bit was

removed remained in the drill hole. Enough adhesive to fill the drill hole was dispensed into the

drill hole using a manual dispenser. A 3/8” HAS-E rod was inserted into the hole in a twisting

motion. The adhesive was allowed to set and cure for a minimum of 24 hours. This test

determined if improper cleaning of the drill hole had a negative effect on the capacity of the

anchor.

3.8.3 HIT-RE 500, Oversized Diameter, Cleaned

Holes were drilled first with a ½” drill bit, and then a 1” drill bit resulting in a final

diameter of 1” prior to installation, concrete dust was removed using compressed air. A wire

brush was used to remove additional debris and was blown out with compressed air again.

Enough adhesive to fill the drill hole was dispensed into the drill hole using a manual dispenser.

A 3/8” HAS-E rod was inserted into the hole in a twisting motion. The adhesive was allowed to

set and cure for a minimum of 24 hours. This test was used to determine if a hole diameter

outside the specified range would affect the performance of the anchor.

3.8.4 HY 150, Standard Diameter, Cleaned, Dry

Holes were drilled with a 7/16” drill bit in one pass. Prior to installation, concrete dust

was removed using compressed air. A wire brush was used to remove additional debris and was

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blown out with compressed air again. Enough adhesive to fill the drill hole was dispensed into

the drill hole using a manual dispenser. A 3/8” HAS-E rod was inserted into the hole in a

twisting motion. The adhesive was allowed to set and cure for a minimum of 24 hours. This set

of tests served as the control group. The results were used to gauge the results of the other HY

150 tests.

3.8.5 HY 150, Standard Diameter, Cleaned, Wet

Holes were drilled with a 7/16” drill bit in one pass. Prior to installation, concrete dust

was removed using compressed air. A wire brush was used to remove additional debris and was

blown out with compressed air again. The drill hole was filled with Worcester City tap water.

Enough adhesive to fill the drill hole was dispensed into the drill hole using a manual dispenser.

The water was displaced as the adhesive was dispensed. A 3/8” HAS-E rod was inserted into the

hole in a twisting motion. The adhesive was allowed to set and cure for a minimum of 24 hours.

This set of tests was designed to show if the HY 150 adhesive’s effectiveness was affected by

water.

3.8.6 HY 150, Oversized Diameter, Cleaned, Wet

Anchors for this test were installed into two 30” x 6” x 6” beams. Because the beam was

only 6” wide the effective edge distance was assumed to be 3”. Holes were drilled first with a

½” drill bit, and then a 1” drill bit resulting in a final diameter of 1” prior to installation, concrete

dust was removed using compressed air. A wire brush was used to remove additional debris and

was blown own with compressed air again. The drill hole was filled with Worcester City tap

water. Enough adhesive to fill the drill hole was dispensed into the drill hole using a manual

dispenser. The water was displaced as the adhesive was dispensed. A 3/8” HAS-E rod was

inserted into the hole in a twisting motion. The adhesive was allowed to set and cure for a

minimum of 24 hours. This test was used to determine interaction between an improperly sized

drill hole and the presence of water.

3.9 Design Project

In order to analyze the impact of installation on performance, the test results will be used to

design a concrete panel similar to that of the Big Dig. A concrete panel with dimensions of 100”

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by 100” and a depth of 12” will be suspended. If a concrete with a unit weight of 150 pcf is

used, the total weight of the panel will be 10,417 pounds. The minimum depth, spacing and edge

distance for each adhesive is met by the geometry of the panel.

HILTI’s technical guide incorporates a factor of safety of approximately 4 into their design

values, which is only applicable when the anchors are properly installed. When shortcuts are

taken and the anchors are not installed properly, this factor of safety significantly drops. More

anchors would be required to achieve a factor of safety of 4 and the costs associated with each

anchor would also rise.

The design project will compare the cost effectiveness of proper installation of the anchors

versus improper installation while maintaining a factor of safety of 4.

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4 Results The results of each individual round of testing are located in the following sections. Figure

25 shows the combined maximum loads for each test along with the standard deviation. The

chart contains two boxes which represent the standard deviations from each test. The test

average is where the two boxes meet.

Figure 25: Combined Failure Load

Figure 26 shows the combined bond stresses for each test along with the standard deviation.

The chart contains two boxes which represent the standard deviations from each test. The test

average is where the two boxes meet.

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Figure 26: Combined Bond Stress

4.1 Material Test Results

The results of each material test defined in section 3.7 are listed in the following sections.

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4.1.1 Concrete Direct Compressive Test

A total of 9 tests were performed to determine the average compressive strength of the

concrete. The elastic modulus was calculated as 2,661,770 psi using tests 7 through 9. The

individual stress load, average stress load, and standard deviation are presented below.

Table 6: Concrete Compression Test Results

Test Sample Compressive Strength (psi)

1 4,868

2 5,023

3 5,335

4 4,806

5 4,975

6 4,669

7 5,160

8 5,200

9 5,250

Average 5,032

SD 223

4.1.2 Concrete Indirect Tensile Test

A total of 6 tests were performed to determine the indirect tensile strength of the

concrete. The peak load and tensile strength are presented below.

Table 7: Concrete Indirect Tension Tests Results

Indirect Tensile Test

Sample Peak Load (lbf) Tensile Stress (psi)

1 44,208 390.9

2 41,262 364.8

3 49,307 436.0

4 46,261 409.0

5 50,625 447.6

6 40,753 360.3

Average 45,403 401.4

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4.1.3 Steel Anchor Tension Test

A total of 6 3/8” HAS-E steel anchors were tested to determine the tensile strength and

the modulus of the steel. The data is presented below.

Table 8: Steel Anchor Tension Test Results

Stress (psi) Modulus (psi)

1 109,980 34,879,780

2 123,739 32,429,870

3 124,418 27,409,020

4 121,853 26,412,250

5 139,057 27,132,950

6 136,482 41,564,330

Average 125,922 31,638,033

SD 10,600 5,918,723

The Modulus for tests 4 and 6 may not be accurate. Test 4 had the teeth for the strain

gauge was directly over the point of deformation and the gauge slipped because of this. Test 6

had the point of deformation outside of the teeth so a large part of the deformation was not

measured.

4.2 Anchor Test Results

The following sections contain the test results for the anchor tests using HIT RE 500 and

HY 150 Max adhesives. 3/8” HAS E threaded rods were used for each test. Each test was

loaded until failure.

4.2.1 HIT-RE 500, Standard Diameter, Cleaned

A total of 10 tests were performed. Each test resulted in concrete failure as shown in

Figure 27. The individual test results are shown in Table 9.

Figure 27: Concrete Failure, HIT RE 500 Cleaned

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Table 9 HIT-RE 500, Standard Diameter, Cleaned Results

Test Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Max Load (lbs) 10,601 10,606 10,061 8,941 9,605 9,454 10,944 9,780 9,826 10,215

Max Stress in Rod (psi) 149,974 150,044 142,334 126,489 135,883 133,747 154,826 138,359 139,010 144,513

Bond Stress (psi) 2,286 2,288 2,170 1,928 2,072 2,039 2,360 2,109 2,119 2,203

A brief statistical analysis is shown in Table 10 below. The average load at failure was 10,003

lbs with a standard deviation of ±608 lbs.

Table 10 HIT-RE 500, Standard Diameter, Cleaned Statistical Analysis

Max Load (lbs) Max Rod Stress (psi) Max Bond Stress (psi)

SD 608 8,597 131

Average 10,003 141,518 2,158

Max 10,944 154,826 2,360

Min 8,941 126,489 1,928

Since each test failed in the concrete, the capacity of the rod was not reached. Data published by

HILTI has the bond strength of the HIT RE 500 at 1800psi and the data collected averages the

bond strengths to 2158psi, 20% higher.

4.2.2 HIT-RE 500, Standard Diameter, Un-Cleaned

A total of 10 tests were performed. Each test resulted in anchor pullout. The individual

test results are shown in Table 11 HIT-RE 500, Standard Diameter Un-Cleaned Test Results and

a statistical analysis in Table 12 HIT-RE 500, Standard Diameter, Un-cleaned Statistical

Analysis.

Table 11 HIT-RE 500, Standard Diameter Un-Cleaned Test Results Test Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Max Load (lbs) 5,480 3,617 5,073 4,310 4,685 3,762 2,336 4,852 3,513 4,421

Max Stress in Rod (psi) 77,529 51,177 71,773 60,977 66,274 53,223 33,045 68,644 49,704 62,544

Bond Stress (psi) 1,182 780 1,094 930 1,010 811 504 1,047 758 954

Table 12 HIT-RE 500, Standard Diameter, Un-cleaned Statistical Analysis

Max Load (lbs) Max Rod Stress (psi) Max Bond Stress (psi)

SD 919 13,000 198

Average 4,205 59,489 907

Max 5,480 77,529 1,182

Min 2,336 33,045 504

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There is a higher standard deviation in this set of tests which can be contributed to the

amount of concrete dust which was left in the drill hole. The failure created a conical blow-out

that started at a distance from the concrete surface.

4.2.3 HIT-RE 500, Oversized Diameter, Cleaned

A total of 10 tests were performed. Each test resulted in steel failure of the anchor as

shown in Figure 28. The individual test results are shown in Table 13 and a statistical analysis in

Table 14.

Figure 28: Ductile Steel Failure in Oversized HIT RE 500 Test

Table 13: HIT-RE 500 Oversized Diameter Test Results

Test Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Max Load (lbs) 9,320 9,012 9,215 9,249 9,386 9,287 9,521 9,418 9,447 9,351

Max Stress in Rod (psi) 131,846 127,492 130,371 130,841 132,782 131,386 134,691 133,241 133,653 132,294

Bond Stress (psi) 2,010 1,944 1,988 1,995 2,024 2,003 2,053 2,031 2,038 2,017

Table 14: HIT-RE 500 Oversized Diameter Test Statistical Analysis Max Load (lbs) Max Rod Stress (psi) Max Bond Stress (psi)

SD 143 2,020 31

Average 9,321 131,860 2,010

Max 9,386 132,782 443

Min 9,012 127,492 425

The anchors failed at an average stress of 9,321 lbs. and had a standard deviation of ±143

lbs.

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4.2.4 HY 150 Max, Standard Diameter, Cleaned, Dry

A total of five tests were performed. Each test resulted in concrete failure as shown in

Figure 29 and Figure 30. The individual test results are shown in Table 15 and a statistical

analysis in Table 16.

Table 15: HY 150 Max, Cleaned, Dry Test Results Test Number 1 2 3 4 5

Max Load (lbs) 8,718 9,271 8,581 9,324 9,430

Max Stress in Rod (psi) 123,341 131,164 121,399 131,911 133,412

Bond Stress (psi) 1,880 2,000 1,851 2,011 2,034

Table 16: HY 150 Max, Cleaned, Dry, Statistical Analysis Max Load (lbs) Max Rod Stress (psi) Max Bond Stress (psi)

SD 386 5,468 83

Average 9,065 128,246 1,955

Max 9,430 131,911 2,034

Min 8,581 121,399 1,851

Figure 29: Concrete Failure, HY 150 Max

Cleaned

Figure 30: Concrete Failure, HY 150 Max

Cleaned

4.2.5 HY 150 Max, Standard Diameter, Cleaned, Wet

A total of five tests were performed. Each test resulted in anchor pull-out. The

individual test results are shown in Table 17 and a statistical analysis in Table 18.

Table 17: HY 150 Max, Cleaned, Wet Test Results Test Number 1 2 3 4 5

Max Load (lbs) 6,646 6,422 4,307 6,407 6,455

Max Stress in Rod (psi) 94,026 90,848 60,934 90,635 91,320

Bond Stress (psi) 1,434 1,385 929 1,382 1,392

Table 18: HY 150 Max, Cleaned, Wet Statistical Analysis

Max Load (lbs) Max Rod Stress (psi) Max Bond Stress (psi)

SD 978 13,829 211

Average 6,047 85,553 1,304

Max 6,646 92,026 1,434

Min 4,307 60,934 929

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4.2.6 HY 150 Max, Oversized Diameter, Cleaned, Wet

A total of six tests were performed. Each test resulted in anchor pull-out. The individual

test results are shown Table 19 in and a statistical analysis in Table 20.

Table 19: HY 150 Max, Oversized, Wet, Test Results Test Number 1 2 3 4 5 6

Max Load (lbs) 6,038 6,646 6,229 4,375 6,169 5,583

Max Stress in Rod (psi) 85,414 94,022 88,123 61,896 87,269 78,985

Bond Stress (psi) 1,302 1,433 1,343 944 1,330 1,204

Table 20: HY 150 Max, Oversized, Wet, Statistical Analysis Max Load (lbs) Max Rod Stress (psi) Max Bond Stress (psi)

SD 795 11,246 171

Average 5,840 82,618 1,260

Max 6,646 92,026 314

Min 4,375 60,934 206

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4.3 Design Problem

The design project will compare the cost effectiveness of installation technique with regards

to a constant factor or safety. In order to make calculations, assumptions were made regarding

the size and weight of a concrete block and the associated costs of materials and installation. The

concrete block was 100” x 100” x 12”, as shown in Figure 31, and weighed 10,417lbs assuming

the concrete was 150lbs per cubic foot. A tube of adhesive was assumed to cost $26.00 and one

anchor to cost $1.00. From our testing we estimated the time to drill one hole is 20 minutes, 10

minutes to properly clean a bore hole, and 5 minutes for installation. A worker’s wages were

estimated to be $30.00 an hour. This would make the cost to drill one hole $10.00, clean one

hole $5.00 and $2.50 to install the anchor.

Figure 31: Design Project Dimensions

4.3.1 HIT RE 500 Design

The allowable load for design was calculated to be 1/4th

of the ultimate loads determined

through testing. This is consistent with HILTI specifications. Using the allowable loads, the

number of anchors required to suspend the 10,417 pound concrete panel with a factor of safety of

approximately 4 were determined, as shown in Table 21.

Table 21: HIT RE 500 Design Values

HIT RE 500 Ultimate Load (lbs per rod) Allowable Load (lbs per rod) # Rods FS

Cleaned 10,003 2,501 4 3.84

Uncleaned 4,205 1,051 10 4.04

Oversized Diameter 9,321 2,330 5 4.47

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Using the above mentioned costs, the cost per panel in order to reach a factor of safety

close to four for each case was calculated and is shown below.

Table 22: HIT RE 500 Panel Costs

HIT RE 500 Cost ($ per panel)

Cleaned 76

Uncleaned 140

Oversized Diameter 95

To illustrate to cumulative impact of improperly installing anchors, a chart was created

which shows the differences between the installation techniques over a range of costs and factor

of safety values, which is shown in Figure 32. As the number of anchors increases, the cost with

improperly installed anchors rises unnecessarily high.

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00

Factor of Safety

Var

iab

le C

ost

Cleaned

Oversized Diameter

Uncleaned

Figure 32: HIT RE 500 Cost Effectiveness

4.3.2 HIT HY 150 Max Design

The values for the allowable loads and costs were calculated by the same process as the HIT

RE 500 values and are shown in Table 23 and Table 24 respectively.

Table 23: HIT HY 150 Max Design Values HIT HY 150 Max Ultimate Load (lbs per rod) Allowable Load (lbs per rod) # of Rods FS

Cleaned, Dry 9065 2266 5 4.35

Cleaned, Wet 6047 1512 7 4.06

Oversized Diam., Wet 5840 1460 7 3.92

Table 24: HIT HY 150 Max Panel Costs

HIT HY 150 Max Cost ($ per panel)

Cleaned, Dry 95

Cleaned, Wet 133

Oversized Diam., Wet 133

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A similar chart was created for the HIT HY 150 Max adhesive and in Figure 33. It shows

that the costs for contaminated drill holes are overall, considerably higher than the drill holes

without contaminants. In the event that the drill holes become contaminated it will be cost

effective to use a proper adhesive system for installation due to the increase of costs to

compensate for contamination.

Figure 33: HIT HY 150 Max Cost Effectiveness

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4.3.3 Load Distribution

Upon installation the anchors should be placed evenly to ensure and even distribution of

loading to each anchor, as shown in Figure 34. The factors of safety calculated are assuming that

the load is evenly distributed and moment does not come into play. In the event an anchor does

fail it not only distributes that load over the remaining anchors but may add an additional stress

on the anchors due to moment causing more anchors to fail even though the direct tension

capacity has not been exceeded. For example if two anchors support one concrete panel, one

anchor at each end, and one anchor fails it is guaranteed the other anchor will fail given the

anchors used are 3/8 inch rods. The remaining rod would be under the full 10,417 lbs vertical

load and given an edge distance of 8 inches the rod would be under a moment of 36,458 ft-lbs.

Figure 34: Design Problem Anchor Location

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5 Conclusions

As the tests collectively show, the method in which an anchor is installed has potential to

drastically affect the performance. Many of the conditions that lead to poor installation are

caused by human error or cost-cutting measures. Less predictable conditions are the result of

material properties that cannot so easily be compensated for. To compensate for these

properties, a safety factor must be used to modify the effective capacity of the anchor system.

This section will discuss these problem factors, such as the one shown in Figure 35, resulting

from the tests and how they can be avoided during construction and design.

Figure 35: Big Dig Panel Collapse, news.thomasnet.com

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5.1 Concrete

Six concrete cylinders, shown in Figure 36, were tested in order to determine the

compressive strength of the concrete. The samples were cured for 48 days at the time of testing.

The average compressive strength was approximately 5,000 psi with a standard deviation of 223

psi. The 95% confidence interval given the number of samples and standard deviation ranges

from 4.8 ksi to 5.2 ksi. The concrete samples were slightly larger than the target compressive

strength of 4,000 psi.

Figure 36: Capped Concrete Test Cylinders

5.2 Steel Rod

Six rods were tested to determine the ultimate strength of the 3/8” steel HAS-E rods. The

average ultimate strength of the steel rods was 126 ksi. The rods were narrowed in the middle to

allow a strain gage to take a measurement, which is shown in Figure 37. This allowed the

modulus of elasticity to be determined. The average modulus of elasticity was 31,600 ksi. The

data may have errors due to induced stresses on the rod which were a result of milling.

According to ISO 898 Class 5.8 standards, the minimum ultimate strength of the steel is rated at

Fu =72.5 ksi. For an average strength of 126ksi and an area of 0.1105 in2 we can calculate a

loading of 13. 9 kips for the ultimate strength of the steel rods. The HILTI anchor manual

provides ultimate and allowable loads for the HAS-E rods of 6,005 lbs and 2,640 lbs

respectively. Both these values were calculated using 0.75*Fu*Anom for the ultimate strength and

0.33*Fu*Anom for the allowable strength of a 3/8” rod. Taking the average stress capacity from

test data, 126 ksi, and dividing it by 72.5 ksi we get 1.7, which can be assumed as the factor of

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safety for the steel strength. In the event the rods fail we can calculate the confidence interval for

the strength of the steel rods. Using the formula for confidence interval we determine a 95%

confidence to be between 116.5 ksi to 133.5 ksi.

Figure 37: Attached Strain Gauge

5.3 HIT RE 500 Adhesive

A total of thirty tests were completed using 3/8” HAS-E rods and HIT RE 500 adhesive.

Three installation techniques were tested which include; a control group installed to HILTI

specifications, one group in which the drill holes were improperly cleaned, and one group which

had oversized drill holes. Although one of the conditions tested against the control did not create

a noticeable drop in performance it is recommended that the HILTI installation specifications

should be followed as closely as possible for optimal results.

The control group, which was properly installed, had the highest loading at failure, which

is not surprising. The average load for this test series was 10 kips with a standard deviation of 0.6

kips. The actual diameter of the rods was measured to be 3/10 inch. The stress in the rods

averaged 141.6 ksi and did not fail. The values for the ultimate stress of the steel rods were

calculated to be 125 ksi in section 5.2, and a 95% confidence interval ranges from 116.5 ksi to

133.5 ksi. The value of 141.6 ksi is outside the confidence interval but the milling of the steel

rods in order to measure strain may have lowered the strength and therefore the calculated

stresses for the original steel rod tests may be lower than actual values. The ultimate bond to

concrete capacity for HIT RE 500 and 4 ksi concrete is listed as 10.3 kips, and a bond strength is

also given as 1,800 psi. Using the equation for the surface area of the inside side walls of the

bore hole, we determined that the bottom of the hole carries approximately 2 kips of load and the

side walls carry 8.3 kips of load at failure. Using the assumption that the bottom of the drill hole

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42

holds 2 kips, we calculated the bond strength from the test data, which is 1,726 psi with a

standard deviation of 131 psi. This value verifies that the bond strength of the adhesive to be

within reason for these tests and our results come close to the data provided in the HILTI

manual. This also shows that the slight increase in concrete strength may not improve the bond

strength and the reduction experienced could have come from improper installation. This set of

data is our control for the rest of the HIT RE 500 tests.

The following test, which was improperly installed, was not cleaned after drilling or prior

to anchor installation. The average load for this test series was 4.2 kips with a standard deviation

of 0.9 kips. Using the same nominal area for the rod, the rod stress averaged to 59.5 ksi and did

not fail. The bottoms of the holes for this test series were never cleaned and it can be assumed

that the bottoms of the holes were layered in concrete dust. Therefore the 2 kip load from the

bottom of the hole can be ignored for the bond strength calculations. The average bond strength

for this test series is 907 psi with a standard deviation of 198 psi. For this test, each sample blew

out the concrete in an identical way, shown in Figure 38 and Figure 39.

Figure 38: HIT-RE 500 Un-cleaned Anchor Pull-Out

Figure 39: Uncleaned HIT RE-500 Pulled Out Anchor

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43

A portion of concrete on the upper portion of the rod stayed attached while the bottom

section of the rod/adhesive slipped out. If we try and calculate the bond strength using only the

surface area along Distance A, the bond strength values reach upwards of 3,200 psi, which is not

reasonable since the bond strength clean was already tested to be about 1,726 psi in the control

test. Therefore, the concrete blows out but the entire surface area withstands the loading from

adhesive to concrete. When comparing these results to the control tests, the average bond

strength is roughly 50% of the control tests and the average loading is only 42% of what the

cleaned holes should withstand. With this data it is obvious that the cleaning of the holes is

necessary for the installation of the anchor. Otherwise the anchor will carry roughly 40% of the

ultimate load it is designed for. Up to this point, the ultimate strength of the anchors and

adhesive has been compared to the data collected. The allowable bond to concrete capacity for

the HILTI HIT RE 500 is listed at 2.6 kips and the 4.2 kips load is still more then the allowable

load by a factor of roughly 1.6. Therefore, if the anchors are installed without cleaning the holes,

it is still safe to assume they should not fail as long as the design allowable capacity is honored.

The final test with the HIT RE 500 epoxy system was done with oversized bore holes (1”

in diameter). This system is designed for holes that are twice the diameter of the rod, so we

selected a diameter larger outside of the design range. The average load for this test series came

to 9.3 kips with a standard deviation of 0. 1 kips. The ultimate stress in the rods averaged 131.9

ksi with a standard deviation of 2 ksi. The average value for the ultimate stress of the steel rods

was calculated to be 125 ksi in the previous sections, the 95% confidence interval ranged from

116.5 ksi to 133.5 ksi. Our value falls within the confidence interval but we already concluded

that the interval may be on the low side because of milling of rods in the original steel rod test. If

we use the first set of test data, clean holes, as a control the 95% confidence interval for that test

is 136.3 ksi to 146.9 ksi and these rods did not fail. By comparing this confidence interval to the

data collected for the oversized holes we can see that the average ultimate stress is below the

interval for the cleaned holes. In this test series the rods, on average, failed earlier then the

control test. Only two of the rods failed within the 95% confidence interval calculated from the

cleaned hole test. Therefore, the anchors used had imperfections or there were additional stresses

acting on the anchor due to the enlarged drill hole. The narrow standard deviation, 2 ksi, for

these tests makes it unlikely that the rods were faulty and led us to assume that additional

stresses in the rod could be accountable for a lower failure in the rods. After the samples were

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44

tested, it could be observed that the HIT RE 500 epoxy had cracks visible from the top of the

hole, shown in Figure 40.

Figure 40: Cracked HIT RE 500 Adhesive

The early failure of the steel anchor could have been due to a non uniform failure of the

epoxy surrounding the anchor. No certain conclusion for why the failure occurred can be

obtained from our data but we can determine that a hole larger than the design parameters fails

early for reasons unknown. Even though the rods failure was premature the allowable bond to

concrete capacity for the HILTI HIT RE 500 is listed at 2.6 kips and the 9.3 kips load is still

more then the allowable load by a factor roughly 3.6. Therefore if the anchors are installed into a

cleaned hole with a diameter between 7/16” and 1” it is still safe to assume they will not fail as

long as the design allowable capacity is honored.

The three tests conducted with the HIT RE 500 adhesive system and 3/8” rods yielded

results pointing to the significant decline of load resistance without proper installation. Although

all the results did pass the allowable bond/concrete capacity, each test had a different factor of

safety. The allowable loads are determined using a factor of safety in order to give a significant

comfort range for the installed anchors because of unintentional flaws in materials and/or human

error that may result in improper installation. Therefore, the applied loads have a large factor of

safety. Proper installation is imperative and the installation requirements, such as hole size and

edge distance, must also be honored.

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5.4 HY 150 MAX Adhesive

A total of sixteen tests were completed using 3/8” HAS-E rods and HY 150 MAX

adhesive. Three installation techniques were tested including; a control group installed to HILTI

specifications. One group had drill holes were contaminated with water, and one group had

oversized drill holes contaminated with water. Both of the conditions tested against the control

created a noticeable drop in performance. Since the required edge distance and spacing for this

adhesive is 6.75 inches and the edge distance provided was 5.25 inches, we will need to use an

adjustment factor of 0.93 to calculate the loads we are aiming for. Therefore instead of aiming

for an ultimate bond/concrete capacity of 12.2 kips we will aim for 11.4 kips. For optimal

performance the HILTI installation specifications should be followed as closely as possible.

The control group, which was properly installed, had the highest loading at failure. The

average load for this test series was 9 kips with a standard deviation of 0.4 kips. Using the

measured rod diameter of 3/10”, the stress in the rod averaged 128.3 ksi and did not fail. The

ultimate bond to concrete capacity for HIT HY 150 MAX, 4 ksi concrete, and an edge distance

of 5.25 inches is 11.4 kips, but the average bond strength is not given. Using the side wall

surface area we can calculate the approximate bond strength from the test data and average to be

1,955 psi with a standard deviation of 83 psi. Since there is no bond strength listed to compare

our data to, we compared bond to concrete capacity to the data collected. Comparing the average

load from the data, 9 kips, to the ultimate capacity, 11.4 kips, it is observed that the tests failed to

reach the ultimate capacity listed for this adhesive system. The results calculated a loading of

79% of the target ultimate capacity but still surpassed the allowable capacity by a factor of 3.

Therefore it is a reasonable assumption that if the allowable capacity is honored, the anchor

system will not fail. This test series only contained five samples and the statistical power of this

data is roughly 0.5. A larger sample size may have given results matching the HITLTI anchor

data more closely but these results will still be used as our control group.

In the following test, we used the same anchors and adhesive, except the bore holes were

contaminated with Worcester City tap water before installing the anchors. The average ultimate

load for this test came to 6 kips with a standard deviation of 1 kip. The large standard deviation

is a result of the five samples yielding a significantly lower value for loading at failure. The

actual diameter of the rod was measured to be 3/10 inch. The stress in the rod averaged 85.6 ksi

and did not fail. Using the surface area of the side walls of the drill hole, the same method as the

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46

control test, the average bond strength is calculated to be 1,304 psi with a standard deviation of

211 psi. The results calculated a loading of roughly 67% the ultimate capacity of the control

group and roughly 53% the target ultimate capacity but still surpass the allowable capacity in the

HILTI manual by a factor of 2. Therefore it is a reasonable assumption that if the allowable load

is honored the anchor system will not fail. This test series, same as the control test series, only

contained five samples and the statistical power of this data is roughly 0.5. From the data

collected it is obvious that the addition of water to the HIT HY 150 MAX significantly lowers its

bond capacity.

The following test we used the same anchors and adhesive system but the holes were

contaminated with water before installing the anchors. The average ultimate load for this test

came to 6 kips with a standard deviation of 1 kip and all five anchors pulled out of the concrete

at failure. The large standard deviation came from one of the five samples yielding a

significantly lower value for loading at failure. The actual diameter rod was measured to be 3/10

inch. The stress in the rod averaged 85.6 ksi and did not fail. Using the surface area of the side

walls of the drill hole, the same method as the control test, the average bond strength is

calculated to be 1304 psi with a standard deviation of 211 psi. The results calculated show a

loading of roughly 67% the ultimate capacity of the control group and roughly 53% the target

ultimate capacity but still surpasses the allowable capacity in the HILTI manual by a factor of 2.

Therefore it is a reasonable assumption that if the allowable load is honored the anchor system

will not fail. This test series only contained five samples and the statistical power of this data is

roughly 0.5. From the data collected it is obvious that the addition of water to the HIT HY 150

MAX significantly lowers its bond capacity.

In the last test, we used the same anchors and adhesive system contaminated with water

except the test samples were rectangular blocks. The blocks were made from the same batch of

concrete as the other samples. Each of the two blocks were 30” x 6” x 6” and contained three

anchors. Due to the dimensions of the block an edge factor of 0.76 is needed for comparison to

the listed data in the HILTI manual. The average ultimate load for this test came to 5.8 kips with

a standard deviation of 0.8 kips. Samples 1, 4, and 5 failed with anchor pull out, which is shown

in Figure 41, while samples 2, 3, and 6 split the sample apart at failure shown in Figure 42. The

large standard deviation comes from the wide range of values and this most likely due to the

different levels of contamination due to water during installation. Using the actual diameter of

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47

3/10 inch, the stress in the rod averaged 82.7 ksi and did not fail. Using the surface area of the

side walls of the drill hole, the same method as the control test, the average bond strength is

calculated to be 276psi with a standard deviation of 38 psi. The results calculated a loading of

roughly 62% the ultimate capacity, keeping in mind the ultimate capacity is now multiplied by

0.76 because of the edge distance factor, and roughly 64% of the ultimate capacity of the control

group. Although the rods failed to reach the ultimate capacity they still surpass the allowable

capacity in the HILTI manual by a factor of 2.5. Therefore, it is a reasonable assumption that if

the allowable load is honored the anchor system will not fail even with drill holes between 7/16

inches and 1 inch. These stress values may not be accurate because the tests had two different

modes of failure. On average the lower failures were due to anchor pull out, therefore we will

assume that the values for bond strength are reasonable since low bond strengths were observed

for three of the tests.

Figure 41: HIT HY 150 Max, Oversized, Wet Pull Out

Comparing this test to the other HIT HY 150 MAX test contaminated with water we see

very little change in load capacity with the increase in surface area for the epoxy to bond with.

With the increase in hole diameter the volume of water in the holes increased from roughly 0.5

cubic inches to 0.9 cubic inches. The bond strength for the two different tests decreased from

1,304 psi to 276 psi respectively. From this we can assume with a greater volume of water in the

drill holes the greater chance it will have an adverse affect on the epoxy. This test series only

contained six samples and the statistical power of this data is roughly 0.6. From the data

collected it is obvious that the addition of water in oversized holes to the HIT HY 150 MAX

lowers its bond capacity more than the specified drill hole size.

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Figure 42: Split Sample

The three tests conducted with the HIT HY 150 MAX adhesive system with 3/8 inch

HAS-E rods yielded results pointing to the significant decline of load resistance with the

contamination of water. Although all the results did pass the allowable bond/concrete capacity,

each test had a different factor of safety. The allowable loads are determined using a factor of

safety in order to compensate for unintentional flaws in materials and/or human error that may

result in improper installation. Since the HIT HY 150 MAX adhesive is not resistant to water it

would be wise to use an adhesive system that is not affected. Therefore in order for the loads

applied to have a large factor of safety, a proper adhesive system is required and/or contaminates

must not be present during installation. Also the installation requirements such as hole size and

edge distance must be honored to ensure the safety of the project.

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Appendix A: Definitions All definitions are taken from the HILTI 2006 North American Product Technical Guide.

Adhesive Anchor: A device for transferring tension and shear loads to structural concrete,

consisting of an anchor element embedded with an adhesive compound in a cylindrical hole

drilled in hardened concrete.

Anchor Category: An assigned rating that corresponds to a specific strength reduction factor for

concrete failure modes associated with anchors in tension. The anchor category is established

based on the performance of the anchor in installation safety tests.

Anchor Group: A group of anchors of approximately equal embedment and stiffness where the

maximum anchor spacing is less than 3hef.

Anchor Spacing: Centerline to centerline distance between adjacent loaded anchors.

Attachment: The structural assembly, external to the surface of the concrete, that transmits

loads to or receives loads from the base material.

Characteristic Capacity: 5% fractile of the anchor capacity, defined as that value that will be

exceeded by 95% of the population with a 90% confidence.

Concrete Breakout: Failure of the anchor characterized by the formation of a conical fracture

surface originating at or near the embedded end of the anchor element and projecting to the

surface of the base material.

Cracked Concrete: Condition of concrete in which the anchor is installed; concrete is assumed

to be cracked for anchor design purposes if cracks could form in the concrete at or near the

anchor location over the service life of the anchor.

Critical Spacing: Required edge distance between adjacent loaded anchors to achieve full

capacity.

Critical Edge Distance: Required edge distance to achieve full capacity.

Cure Time: The elapsed time after mixing of the adhesive material components to achieve a

state of hardening of the adhesive material in the drilled hole corresponding to the design

mechanical properties and resistances.

Displacement Controlled Expansion Anchor: An expansion anchor designed to expand in

response to driving a plug into the anchor body.

Ductile Steel Element: An element with a tensile test elongation of at least 14% and

corresponding reduction of area of at least 30% at failure.

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Gel Time: The elapsed time after mixing of the adhesive material components to onset

significant chemical reaction as characterized by an increase in viscosity.

Edge Distance: Distance from centerline of anchor to free edge of base material in which the

anchor is installed.

Effective Embedment Depth: Effective anchor embedment equal to distance from surface of

base material, for expansion anchors taken as distance from surface of base material to tip of

expansion element(s).

Minimum Edge Distance: Minimum edge distance to preclude splitting of the base material

during anchor installation.

Minimum Spacing: Minimum spacing between adjacent loaded anchors to preclude splitting of

the base material during anchor installation.

Minimum Member Thickness: Required thickness of member in which anchor is embedded to

prevent splitting of the base material.

Projected Area: The area on the surface of the concrete member that is used to represent the

base of the assumed rectilinear failure surface.

Side Face Blowout: Failure mode characterized by blowout of side cover of an anchor loaded in

tension.

Supplementary Reinforcement: Reinforcement that is proportioned and positioned to tie the

concrete breakout surface into the structural member.

Torque Controlled Expansion Anchor: An expansion anchor designed to expand with the

application of torque to the anchor bolt or nut.

Torque Controlled Adhesive Anchor: An adhesive anchor employing an anchor element

designed to generate expansion forces in response to tension loading.

Undercut Anchor: A mechanical anchor designed to interlock with drilled deformations

(undercuts) in the base material.

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Appendix B: Equations

Allowable Load = 0.33*Anom*Fu*fes

Ultimate Load = 0.75*Anom*Fu*fes

σ = Load/Area

є = ∆L/Lo

E = σ/є

FS = (Ultimate Load)/(Allowable Load)

(95%) Confidence Interval:

AVE±1.96*sqrt(SD/sqrt(n))

Anom = nominal area

Fu = Ultimate Strength of Steel

fes = edge and/or spacing factor

σ = Stress

є = Strain

E = Modulus of Elasticity

FS = Factor of Safety

SD = Standard Deviation

AVE = Average

n = Number of Samples

sqrt = Square Root

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Appendix C: References

"ACI Manual of Concrete Practice. Variant Title: Manual of Concrete Practice. American Concrete

Institute Manual of Concrete Practice Primary Material: Periodical Subject(s): Concrete--

Handbooks, Manuals, etc.--Periodicals. Concrete Construction--Handbooks, Manuals, etc. --

Periodicals." .

American Society for Testing, and Materials. "Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Variant Title: Annual

Book of A.S.T.M. Standards Annual A.S.T.M. Standards Annual ASTM Standards Annual Book of

American Society for Testing and Materials Standards Primary Material: Periodical Subject(s):

Materials--Standards--United States--Periodicals. Materials--Testing--Standards--United States--

Periodicals." .

HILTI. "North American Product Technical Guide." (2006) .

Kosmatka, Steven H., William C. Panarese, and Portland Cement Association. Design and Control of

Concrete Mixtures. 14th ed. Portland Cement Association, 2006.

"Quickstart Guide to the IBC. International Building Code Commentary.International Building Code /

International Code Council. Primary Material: Periodical Subject(s): Building Superintendence--

Periodicals. Construction--Standards--Periodicals.Standards, Engineering--Periodicals. Building

Laws--Periodicals." .

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Appendix D: Test Data Sheets

Attached PDF File

The Effects of Hole Cleaning on Post-Installed Anchor Systems in - [PDF Document] (2024)

FAQs

What are the failure modes of post-installed anchors? ›

Typical failure modes for anchors are steel failure, concrete cone failure (for single or multiple anchors) or edge breakout, bursting failure, splitting failure, pull-out failure, bond failure between anchor and bonding agent or between concrete and bonding agent, or combinations of two or more of the failure modes.

What are post-installed anchors? ›

Post-installed anchors are anchor bolts that are installed after the concrete base has been set. A hole is drilled into the concrete and the anchor is then installed into the hole.

Can you use Hilti epoxy in the rain? ›

The physical advancements in HIT-RE 500 V3 provide several advantages in real-world job sites: Worry less about work conditions. HIT-RE 500 V3 works for post-installed anchoring in dry, wet and water-filled concrete, even if drilled holes are underwater.

What is the spacing for Hilti rebar? ›

As a matter of practicality, spacing of adjacent post-installed reinforcing bars should in general be maintained at 4 bar diameters or greater as clear spacing.

What is the cause of anchor loss? ›

Corrosion and mechanical wear of the brake system will reduce the brake's effectiveness. The brake 'needs to be adjusted and maintained according to the manufacturer's instructions. Many anchors are lost due to uncontrolled run-out of the chain.

What is a pull test for post-installed anchors? ›

It involves attaching a hydraulic pull tester to an anchor and pulling it to a designated test load, continuing to turn the handle and increasing the load until failure. A further calculation is carried out to work out the new recommended load. The anchor should also be tested five times and the average recorded.

What is the code for post-installed anchors? ›

1705.37 Post-installed anchors. The installation of post-installed mechanical anchors, adhesive anchors, and screw anchors shall comply with Table 1705.37.

What is the difference between cast in and post-installed? ›

The difference is that post-installed anchor bolts are installed in a pre-drilled hole, whereas cast-in-place anchor bolts are installed inside of a cavity that's later filled with additional concrete.

What is the strongest anchor epoxy? ›

Ultrabond HS-1CC: World's Strongest Anchoring & Doweling Epoxy | Adhesives Technology Corporation.

How long does it take for anchor epoxy to cure? ›

Leave anchor undisturbed for a minimum of 4 hours (at 77°F / 25°C), or longer for colder temperatures. Load can be applied after 4 hours at 77°F (25°C). Adhesive is fully cured and achieves best strength in 24 hours at 77 °F (25 °C).

What happens if uncured epoxy gets wet? ›

If water gets onto epoxy resin before it has finished curing, it can seep into the mixture and cause various problems. In fact, it may even reach the substrate that your epoxy is bonding to and cause issues there.

Do you need rebar for a 4 inch slab? ›

When Is Rebar Necessary in Concrete? For slabs thicker than 5 inches, a rebar web is required to prevent cracking. Those that may support structures built on their perimeter or within it should also be strengthened. Reinforce slabs span weak or disturbed ground or run over drainage pipes or ditches.

How high should rebar be in concrete? ›

To be most effective for this purpose, the reinforcement needs to be near the top of the slab. For corrosion protection, however, most specifications require a minimum depth of concrete cover that usually ranges from 1 inch to 2 inches.

What is the difference between #3 and #4 rebar? ›

For example, The # 3 bar size is 3/8″ diameter of the solid section, the # 4 bar size is 4/8″ diameter of the solid section, and the # 5 bar size is 5/8″ diameter of the solid section. The three different sizes of rebar used for home projects are usually # 3, # 4 and # 5.

What are the failure modes of anchor bolts? ›

The four failure modes for CI headed anchors in tension include: steel failure (ductile failure mode), concrete breakout, anchor pullout, and side-face blowout (anchors close to an edge).

What are the failure modes of connectors? ›

Abstract: There are many failures in the use of electrical connectors, such as increased contact resistance, intermittent open circuit, reduced insulation resistance, electrical burnout, etc. The most common failure manifestation is burnout.

What is the failure of concrete anchors? ›

Concrete Cone Failure: This occurs when the concrete surrounding an anchor fails, typically in a cone shape. Pullout Failure: In this mode, the fastener is pulled out of the concrete due to the tensile forces when the bond between the fastener and the concrete is not strong enough.

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